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(l-r) Cesar Pelli, Enrique Norton, Ismael Leyva, and Rafael Vinoly (Views from 432 Park Avenue - Douglas Elliman) (l-r) Cesar Pelli, Enrique Norton, Ismael Leyva, and Rafael Vinoly (Views from 432 Park Avenue - Douglas Elliman)
From September 15 - October 15, 2023, Hispanic Heritage Month pays tribute to the histories and contributions of Americans whose ancestors hail from Spain, Mexico, the Caribbean, Central America, and South America. September 15 is a day of independence for Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua; Mexico and Chile's Independence Days fall a short time later.

This year, New York's celebrations include a number of parades, cultural and culinary exhibitions, and parties. However, as the Hispanic community makes up more than one quarter of the city's population, their influence may be seen throughout the boroughs all year round in the form of food, fashion, the arts, and architecture. Below, we look at notable Hispanic architects and their best-known residential designs.

Cesar Pelli

Cesar Pelli Cesar Pelli (Wiki Commons) in Battery Park City (Evan Joseph), home of many of his firm's designs
Early in his celebrated architecture career, the Argentinian-born Cesar Pelli's project with Eero Saarinen's firm included the TWA Flight Center at JFK Airport. His eponymous firm, Pelli Clarke Pelli, has designed iconic buildings all over the world, including Brookfield Place and Carnegie Hall Tower in New York.

15 West 53rd Street
248 units | 55 floors
Completed in 1985
6 availabilities from $1,475,000

Before we had the supertalls of Billionaires' Row, we had Museum Tower. The skyscraper took shape as part of the redevelopment and expansion of the Museum of Modern Art, and many apartments look out on the museum's sculpture garden.

151 East 58th Street
105 units | 55 floors
Completed in 2003
4 availabilities from $6,250,000

To the east of the prewar cooperatives on Fifth and Park Avenues, One Beacon Court ushered in a new age of condominiums on Lexington Avenue. The condos are on top of Bloomberg corporate offices, and residents benefit from sweeping views and close proximity to Bloomingdale's and Central Park.

20 River Terrace
293 units | 27 floors
Completed in 2003
6 availabilities from $645,000

20-River-Terrace-01 The Solaire (Evan Joseph)
When The Solaire was completed as a rental, it was the first LEED Gold-certified high-rise in the United States. Its beautifully modulated form took shape over a sophisticated infrastructure that includes rainwater irrigation to sustain its green roofs, photovoltaic cells for electricity, and a state-of-the-art air conditioning system with MERV14 filtration. It has since been converted to a condop, and the developers are now pursuing WELL certification.

211 North End Avenue
254 units | 27 floors
Completed in 2006
11 availabilities from $5,385/month

211-North-End-Avenue-01 The Verdesian (Rose Associates)
On a walk through Rockefeller Park, The Verdesian stands out for its height and striking facade. However, its exterior wall system includes a vapor and air barrier for air filtration, and the LEED Platinum-certified building is 40 percent more energy efficient than its standard counterparts.

70 Little West Street
251 units | 33 floors
Completed in 2008
4 availabilities from $1,195,000

The Visionaire has garnered considerable attention for its handsome design and spectacular Hudson River views, but it is perhaps best known as one of the most environmentally friendly buildings in New York. Its embrace of sustainable building materials and conservation technologies were instrumental in its certification as New York’s first LEED Platinum-certified building.

229 units | 50 floors
Completed in 2012
No current availabilities

1214-Fifth-Avenue-01 1214 Fifth Avenue (Related Rentals)
East Harlem is in the midst of a residential renaissance as of this writing, but 1214 Fifth Avenue was an early entrant. The apartments start on top of Mount Sinai Medical doctors' offices and benefit from excellent proximity to Central Park and Museum Mile.

1 West End Avenue
246 units | 41 floors
Completed in 2017
3 availabilities from $1,700,000

At street level, One West End stands out for its pleated glass facade on top of a limestone-clad base. Its address allows residents to enjoy sunset views of the Hudson River and the Manhattan skyline, and interiors boast high-end finishes and an array of thoughtful lifestyle amenities.

138 East 50th Street
124 units | 71 floors
Completed in 2020
9 availabilities from $1,895,000

A short distance from the Chrysler Building and the famed Waldorf Astoria, The Centrale’s combination of contemporary architecture and Art Deco elements makes a powerful statement of its own. A 400-ton mass damper mitigates the slender building’s sway, and its floor-to-ceiling windows look out on panoramic Midtown skyline views by virtue of its soaring height.

Rafael Vinoly

Rafael Vinoly architect Rafael Vinoly (Wiki Commons) and Waterline Square (Evan Joseph)
Uruguayan architect Rafael Viñoly's eponymous firm's work is guided by the principle that it is the responsibility of architecture to elevate the public realm, and that context takes precedence over architectural stylization. His obituary notes that he took pride in having designed buildings in all five New York City boroughs, and his recent Manhattan residential works have made new impressions in the world's most iconic skyline.

104 units | 96 floors
Completed in 2015
15 availabilities from $5,750,000

Upon its completion, 432 Park Avenue was the tallest building in the world. Others have since outstripped it in terms of height, but it nevertheless makes a distinctive statement on Billionaires' Row. The building was home to New York's most expensive contract to date in 2023, a full-floor apartment custom-designed by Hiroshi Sugimoto with a $92,000,000 asking price.

129 units | 55 floors
Completed in 2019
4 availabilities from $2,010,000

As NoMad emerged as a residential powerhouse in addition to a culinary and hospitality hot spot, 277 Fifth Avenue was a key component. The building dethroned Trump Tower as the tallest building on Fifth Avenue (though a nearby supertall is nipping at its heels) and briefly featured an art installation on the upper levels.

639 West 59th Street
244 units | 34 floors
Completed in 2020
9 availabilities from $9,885/month

The Waterline Square complex has transformed this section of the Far West Side with its dramatic, celebrity architect-designed towers. Mr. Vinoly's entrant is distinguished by its unique silhouette and faceted glass panels.

25 West 28th Street
16 units | 44 floors
Completed in 2022
No current availabilities

Trendy boutique hotels have put NoMad on the hospitality map, and super-luxe chains have taken notice. Among them is the Ritz-Carlton, which opened in summer 2022. A collection of 16 penthouse residences is situated above the hotel rooms, the better to make the most of panoramic views of the Downtown and Midtown skylines through oversized picture windows with mullion-free frames. Between the beautifully appointed interiors, access to the hotel's staff, amenities, and Jose Andres restaurants, and the convenience of having the hotel manage the penthouses when not in use, perhaps it is no surprise that they sold out earlier this summer.

273 units | 72 floors
Completion estimated for 2024
No current availabilities

125-Greenwich-Street-01 125 Greenwich Street (MARCH)
Between its towering height, eye-catching design by Vinoly, and luxurious amenity package, 125 Greenwich Street was conceived as the Financial District's answer to 432 Park Avenue (see above). Construction stalled for years in the wake of in the wake of partnership disputes, threats of foreclosure, and the pandemic; however, the development team received a new round of financing in February 2023 and work has resumed in earnest.

137-West-Broadway-01 137 West Broadway, #4 (The Corcoran Group)
In the later years of his life, Mr. Viñoly kept a private studio in Tribeca that he rented from his son Roman Viñoly, a director at his eponymous firm. He used it as a space to work on designs and indulge his passion for music with a grand piano in the apartment. Rafael and Roman Viñoly renovated the apartment with an emphasis on studio space, but respected original architectural details like original columns and beams.

From the Listing:
The centerpiece of this loft is its expansive 12 x 60-foot great room, adorned with magnificent oversized arched windows facing west, providing breathtaking vistas of the city and skyline. With 13-foot-tall ceilings, the space exudes a sense of grandeur and splendor. The great room showcases custom white oak shelving stretching from wall-to-wall, perfect for displaying your prized collection of books, models, and antiques. Throughout the apartment, original wood columns and beams add a touch of history and elegance, harmonizing flawlessly with the sleek design.

The generously proportioned chef’s kitchen is a work of art, featuring sustainable IceStone glass countertops, custom wood cabinetry, and top-of-the-line stainless-steel appliances such as a Samsung refrigerator, Frigidaire 5-burner stove, and Fisher & Paykel dual dishwasher. An expansive IceStone peninsula incorporates a long breakfast bar, providing a casual dining experience.

Ismael Leyva

Ismael Leyva Ismael Leyva (Ismael Leyva Architects) and Deutsche Bank Center (CityRealty)
Ismael Leyva left his native Veracruz, Mexico for New York decades ago, and his work with first a prestigious architecture firm and then his eponymous firm have kept him too busy to return. His firm has become one of the most in-demand in the city.

25 Columbus Circle
130 units | 80 floors
Completed in 2003
4 availabilities from $3,995,000

25-Columbus-Circle-01 Deutsche Bank Center (CityRealty)
Directly across from Columbus Circle, the commercial and residential components of the two-towered building have rebranded themselves multiple times over the years. What has not changed, though, is its status as a local landmark, popular retail and restaurants on the first five floors, and celebrity-favorite apartments on the uppermost levels of both towers.

207 East 57th Street
68 units | 36 floors
Completed in 2008
6 availabilities from $2,900,000

57th Street has become synonymous with high-end real estate in recent years, and Place 57 was an early entrant. Its reflective glass facade sets it apart, and residents benefit from sweeping views of the Manhattan cityscape and Central Park.

1355 First Avenue
26 units | 31 floors
Completed in 2014
1 availability for $46,000,000

1355-First-Avenue-01 The Charles (CityRealty)
The Second Avenue subway extension has led to a residential renaissance east of Third Avenue in recent years, but The Charles was an early entrant with its towering height, dramatic cantilever, and expansive apartments. In 2015, a penthouse in the building set a new record for the highest price paid for an Upper East Side home east of Third Avenue.

306 Gold Street
303 units | 40 floors
Completed in 2008
2 availabilities from $899,000

Between its easy access to Manhattan, views of the city skyline and the bridges, and a rapidly emerging cultural scene, Downtown Brooklyn has risen to the top of many developers', buyers', and renters' wish lists. Early entrant Oro was among the tallest buildings in Brooklyn at the time of its completion, and residents still enjoy dramatic views.

19 Park Place
24 units | 21 floors
Completed in 2017
2 availabilities from $1,580,000

Between the Woolworth Tower and the Four Seasons Hotel, a certain stretch of Tribeca has become synonymous with luxury real estate. However, Iris Tribeca more than holds its own in this setting with its slender shape, distinctive corner windows, and rounded balconies that allow nearly all the half-floor and full-floor units to enjoy private outdoor space.

94 units | 11 floors
Completed in 2017
5 availabilities from $995,000

Between its height and materials, 196 Orchard Street pays respectful homage to historic Lower East Side architecture. However, it's safe to say that gold dust-infused bricks from Spain's Costa Brava were not available to the tenement builders of yesteryear, and the loft-inspired interiors are rich in high-end finishes and appliances.

21 India Street
95 condo units | 39 floors
Completed in 2019
2 availabilities for rent from $4,000/month

Before Greenpoint Landing breathed new life into a former industrial area, The Greenpoint rose on the former site of the Huxley Envelope Factory. Several residences have private balconies, and all units enjoy abundant natural light and spectacular waterfront views.

232 East 54th Street
130 units | 40 floors
Completed in 2021
3 availabilities from $4,075/month

A few blocks north of The Centrale (see above), The Gilroy pays similar homage to classic prewar architecture with its limestone facade and Art Deco-inspired crown. However, the apartments and amenities were designed to appeal to the modern renter.

522 units | 16 floors
Completed in 2017
No current availabilities

325-Kent-Avenue-01 325 Kent Avenue (Two Trees Management)
At the center of the Domino Sugar Factory redevelopment, a new line of residential buildings is creating a new skyline along the East River waterfront, and 325 Kent Avenue was an early standout. Architecture critic Carter Horsley has compared it to a two-toned doughnut, and the oversized windows offer residents abundant light and beautiful river and city views.

Enrique Norten

Enrique Norten architect Enrique Norten (Wiki Commons) in front of Mercedes House (Two Trees Management)
Enrique Norten received his bachelor's degree from the Universidad Iberoamericana and his master's degree from Cornell University. The influences of both schools and countries may be seen in the creations of his firm, TEN Arquitectos (Taller de Enrique Norten).

1 York Street
32 units | 13 floors
Completed in 2008
1 availability for rent for $6,800/month

1-York-Street-01 One York (Compass)
As Hudson Square emerged as a residential neighborhood, developers and designers pulled inspiration from industrial buildings, sometimes incorporating them into their new projects. The nearby One York, with its modern glass addition to existing low-rise structures, might have been an inspiration.

17 units | 5 floors
Completed in 2010
No current availabilities

580-Carroll-Street-01 580 Carroll Street (Douglas Elliman)
In an interview about 580 Carroll Street, which took shape in a historic section of Park Slope, Mr. Norten said, "I want this to bring the spirit of hope, so the neighborhood is not condemned to look into the past, but can see a possibility for its future." That certainly appears to be the case - availabilities at 580 Carroll Street are few and far between, and a boutique building boom has taken hold of Brooklyn.

550 West 54th Street
864 units | 29 floors
Completed in 2010
5 availabilities from $4,195/month

The Far West Side has seen some imaginative architecture in recent times, and the amenity-rich Mercedes House led the charge with its zigzagging shape. The stepped roofline offers outdoor space, and the apartments enjoy protected views of the Hudson River.

300 Ashland Place
379 units | 32 floors
Completed in 2021
2 availabilities from $3,575/month

300-Ashland-Place 300 Ashland (Two Trees Management)
Across the street from the landmarked One Hanson Place, 300 Ashland makes a statement of its own with its towering height, aluminum-clad facade, and irregular fenestration. In addition to luxury rentals and an array of amenities, the building houses an Apple store, a branch of the Brooklyn Public Library, and a number of cultural spaces.

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